March 2, 2017

What is a bunion?

Foot and Ankle

Hallux valgus, more commonly referred to as a bunion, is a painful bony bump that develops slowly on the inside of the boot at the big toe joint. Pressure on the big toe joint makes the big toe lean toward the second toe. Over time, the normal structure of the foot changes, resulting in hallux valgus. This makes it painful to wear shoes or walk.


The big toe is made up of two joints; the larger of the two is the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, which is where the first long bone of the foot meets the first bone of the toe. This is where hallux valgus develop.

A bunion forms when the bones that make up the MTP joint move out of alignment. The MTP joint gets larger and protrudes from the inside of the forefoot.


They may be caused by wearing poorly fitted shoes, such as heels with a pointed toe, heredity or having an inflammatory condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Anyone can develop these bony bumps, but they are more common in women since many women wear tight, narrow shoes that squeeze the toes together.


  • A visible bump on the inside of the foot
  • Pain and tenderness
  • Redness and inflammation
  • Hardened skin on the bottom of the foot
  • A callus or corn on the bump
  • Stiffness and restricted motion in the big toe, which can lead to difficulty walking

Physician examination

Your physician will ask you for a complete medical history, your symptoms and conduct a physical examination. An X-ray can confirm the diagnosis.

Make an appointment with an foot and ankle specialist at OrthoIndy

Bunion treatment

Usually treatment does not involve surgery, which can help reduce pain and keep the it from worsening; however, it will not reverse the development. Most of the time your physician will recommend a change in footwear, to add padding to your shoes, orthotics, icing or medications.

Bunion surgery is only recommended if other nonsurgical options have not provided relief. Surgery realigns the bone, ligaments, tendons and nerves so that the big toe can be brought back to its correct position. No hospital stay is recommended after surgery. There are many different surgical methods, the best method of surgery is determined after examination.


It may require up to four weeks of non-weight bearing and can take several months after surgery for a complete recovery.

Schedule an Appointment Call OrthoIndy 317.802.2000
Megan Golden

By Megan Golden

Megan is the current Marketing Team Lead at OrthoIndy. Megan graduated from Ball State University in 2012 with a bachelor’s degree in public relations and advertising and communications studies minor and has been with OrthoIndy since June 2012.

Related Posts

More from OrthoIndy

Top 5 most common soccer injuries

Top 5 most common soccer injuries

Most soccer injuries involve the lower extremities of the body. Learn more about the five most common soccer injuries and the risks of playing soccer.


Top 5 most common Halloween injuries and how to prevent them

Top 5 most common Halloween injuries and how to prevent them

Halloween is an exciting time filled with candy and costumes. However, it can lead to scary Halloween injuries. Learn more about Halloween safety tips for parents.


Limb lengthening: New option for limb deformity correction

Limb lengthening: New option for limb deformity correction

Here we explain how limb lengthening technology benefits patients with limb length inequality and limb deformities.


Get stories and News in your inbox

Subscribe to our weekly articles